In the first ten-day period of April 2019, the weather conditions became warmer compared with the standard level, in terms of low-scale precipitations in the form of rain, and in some raions of the east — sleet. On most days of the reporting period, coming of cold air masses caused the general decrease in temperature and air frosts throughout whole territory of the country, as well as soil frosts at the height of 2 cm.
For the ten-day period, the sunshine duration to the soil surface varied within 60-110 hours, which almost reached the standard figures or up 10-35 hours in western oblasts, and even exceeded the standard by 36-58 hours in the remaining part of the country.
In southern oblasts, as well as most eastern and western oblasts, the average oblast air temperature varied within the standard range or exceeded it by 1-2°C, while in northern oblasts, Kharkiv, Poltava, Lviv and Zakarpattia oblasts — up 2.1-3.4°C, and varied within the range of +8.1...12.9°C.
At the end of the ten-day period, on the warmest days the maximum air temperature reached +20...25°C.
In the first half of the period, in the coldest nights the minimum air temperature declined to -2...-4°C.
At night, in most part of the country the soil surface temperature cooled to -6...-11°C, while in Volyn, Ternopil and Zakarpattia oblasts — to -4...-5°C. But on the warmest days, the soil surface heated to nearly +37...48°C.
For 4-10 days, there were observed air frosts throughout whole territory of the country, as well as soil frosts at the height of 2 cm within the range of +2...13°C.
For 1-3 days, rather low-scale precipitations developed throughout most oblasts of the country. In most oblasts, the depth of precipitations totaled 5-25% of the standard only (1-3 mm), while in Luhansk, Odessa, Zhytomyr, Khmelnytskyi, Rivne and Zakarpattia oblasts — 31-58% (4-7 mm). At the same time, in Chernihiv, Sumy, Poltava, Cherkasy, Kharkiv, Zaporizhia oblasts, most raions of Kyiv and Dnipropetrovsk oblasts, certain raions of Kirovohrad, Ivano-Frankivsk, Zakarpattia, Odessa and Kherson oblasts, there were no precipitations at all.
The average temperature of the soil at the depth of 10 cm totaled +7...13°C.
In the reporting period, the relative humidity of the air in the country varied within the range of 40-72%. For 6-10 days, the figures reduced to 30% and below, and in Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Luhansk, Donetsk and Zaporizhia oblasts — for 3-5 days.
For 1-4 days, in most oblasts, except for Sumy, Chernihiv, Zhytomyr, Cherkasy and Zakarpattia oblasts, the wind speed increased to 15-19 m/s.
In the reporting ten-day period, there were rather variable agro-meteorological conditions for crops growth and development. They were rather satisfactory for winter crops, but unsatisfactory for early grains and pulses.
The absence of precipitations, and low relative humidity in combination with the increased wind speed contributed to development of dry hot wind weather events. The rapid drying of the topsoil layer (5-10 cm) contributed to delaying and troubling of seeds germinating and formation of sprouts of the previously planted early spring grains and pulses.
The observed frosts were rather dangerous for early spring crop sprouts. In some raions of southern oblasts, frosts even damaged spring barley areas.
The planted areas under winter grains (rye, barley, wheat) were in the stages of tillering, formation of nodal roots, while in some raions of north-western and north-eastern oblasts — third leaf formation. The general condition of grain areas was good and satisfactory.
The areas under winter rapeseed reached the stages of stem growing and inflorescences emergence. The height of rapeseed in the "stem growing" stage varied within 7-26 cm. The condition of rapeseed areas was mostly good.
In the reporting ten-day period, agrarians continued planting spring barley, spring wheat and oats. The previously planted areas under spring barley reached grain germination processes, as well as formation of sprouts and third leaf, in some raions of Kherson oblast — formation of nodal roots and tillering processes. Oats and wheat areas reached grain germination processes, and formation of sprouts. The condition of sprouted agricultural crops was mainly good.
Agrarians continued planting peas, while the previously planted areas reached grain germination processes, as well as formation of sprouts and third leaf. The condition of sprouted peas was mainly good.
Agrarians started planting late crops — sunflower seed, corn, and sugar beet.
In the remaining part of the month, the weather conditions for further crops development in Ukraine will be quite good.
According to the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Center www.meteo.gov.ua